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Chemicals >> Stains & Indicators


Bromothymol Blue

Bromothymol BlueBromothymol blue, also known as bromthymol blue, is a chemical indicator for weak acids and bases.

The bromothymol blue acts as a weak acid in solution and therefore can be in acid or base forms which appear yellow and blue respectively. It is green in neutral solution. Bromothymol blue is typically sold in solid form as the sodium salt of the acid indicator. It also finds occasional use in the laboratory as a biological slide stain. At this point it is already blue, and a drop or two is used on a water slide. The coverslip is placed ontop of the water droplet and the specimen in it, with the blue coloring mixed in. It is sometimes used to define cell walls or nuclei under the microscope.

Bromothymol blue is mostly used in measuring substances that would have relatively low acidic or basic levels (near a neutral pH). It's often used in pools, fish tanks, or measuring the presence of carbonic acid in a liquid.

Description Price SelectQuantity
Bromothymol Blue Indicator - 100ml bottle $ 5.65
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Carbol-Fuchsin Solution

Description Price SelectQuantity
Carbol-Fuchsin Solution 100ml Bottle $ 10.60
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Carmine Lake Stain Powder

Description Price SelectQuantity
Carmine Lake Stain Powder 5 gm. $ 20.00
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Congo Red

Congo RedCongo red (C32H22N6Na2O6S2) is the sodium salt of benzidinediazo-bis-1-naphtylamine-4-sulfonic acid.  It is a secondary diazo dye. Congo red is water soluble, yielding a red colloidal solution; its solubility is better in organic solvents such as ethanol.

It has a strong, though apparently non-covalent affinity to cellulose fibres. However, the use of congo red in the cellulose industries (cotton textile, wood pulp & paper) has long been abandoned, mainly because of its toxicity.

Due to a color change from blue to red at pH 3.0-5.2, congo red can be used as a pH indicator. Since this color change is an approximate inverse of that of litmus, it can be used with litmus paper in a simple parlor trick: add a drop or two of congo red to both an acid solution and a base solution. Dipping red litmus paper in the red solution will turn it blue, while dipping blue litmus paper in the blue solution will turn it red.

Congo red has a propensity to aggregate in aqueous and organic solutions. The proposed mechanisms suggest hydrophobic interactions between the aromatic rings of the dye molecules, leading to a pi-pi stacking phenomenon. Although these aggregates are present under various sizes and shapes, the "ribbon-like micelles" of a few molecules seem to be the predominant form (even if the "micelle" term is not totally appropriate here). This aggregation phenomenon is more important for high congo red concentrations, at high salinity and/or low pH.

Description Price SelectQuantity
Congo Red 1% aqueous solution - 100ml bottle $ 6.90
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Gram Stains

Description Price SelectQuantity
Gram Stain Set - 8 oz. bottles $ 34.00
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Iodine Solution

Iodine SolutionLugol's iodine, also known as Lugol's solution or Iodine Solution, first made in 1829, is a solution of iodine named after the French physician J.G.A. Lugol. Lugol's iodine solution is often used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, a starch indicator, to replenish iodine deficiency, to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive materials (e.g. "fallout"), and for emergency disinfection of drinking water.

It consists of 5% iodine and 10% potassium iodide in distilled water with total iodine content of 130 mg/mL. Potassium iodine is added to render the iodine water-soluble. This solution is also used as an indicator to test for the presence of starches in organic compounds (turns a dark-blue/black).

Other names for Lugol's solution are IKI (Iodine Potassium-Iodide); Iodine, Strong solution (Systemic); Aqueous Iodine Solution BP.

One of the most commonly used laboratory iodine solutions is .10N IKI.

It can be used as a cell stain, making the cell nuclei more visible.

This is no longer available due to state regulations.


Methylene Blue

Methylene BlueMethylene blue is an heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology or chemistry.

At room temperature it appears as a solid, odorless, dark green powder, that yields a blue solution when dissolved in water.

Methylene blue should not be confused with methyl blue, another histology stain, or with the methyl violets often used as pH indicators.

Description Price SelectQuantity
Methylene Blue 1% - 120ml bottle $ 6.80
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Neutral Red

Description Price SelectQuantity
Neutral Red 1% Solution 100 ml Bottle $ 8.65
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Phenol Red

Phenol RedPhenol red is a pH indicator that is frequently used in cell biology laboratories. A synonym for phenol red is phenolsulfonephthalein.

Phenol red exhibits a gradual transition from yellow to red over the pH range 6.6 to 8.0. Above pH 8.1, phenol red turns a bright pink (fuschia) color.

Several indicators share a similar structure to phenol red, including bromothymol blue, thymol blue, bromocresol purple, thymolphthalein, and phenolphthalein.

Description Price SelectQuantity
Phenol Red Solution .02% 100ml Bottle $ 6.50
Phenol Red Solution .02% 500ml Bottle $ 12.20
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Phenolphthalein

PhenolphthaleinPhenolphthalein is a sensitive pH indicator with the formula C20H14O4.

Often used in titrations, it turns from colorless in acidic solutions to pink in basic solutions. If the concentration of indicator is particularly strong, it can appear purple.

In strongly basic solutions, phenolphthalein's pink color undergoes a rather slow fading reaction and becomes colorless again.

Description Price SelectQuantity
Phenolphthalein 1.0% 120 ML - Each $ 7.00
Phenolphthalein 1.0% 475 ML - Each $ 11.25
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Universal Indicator

Description Price SelectQuantity
Universal Indicator Solution - 500ml bottle $ 30.00
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Wrights Blood Stain

Description Price SelectQuantity
Wrights Blood Stain 100 ml Bottle $ 8.20
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Niles Biological, Inc.
9298 Elder Creek Road
Sacramento, CA 95829
(916) 386-2665